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挖掘机的使用技巧及如何延长使用寿命

日期:2019-03-21   来源:
挖掘机各种作业时的使用技巧
Use Skills of Excavators in Various Operations
1、挖掘机操作技术:
1. Excavator operation technology:
首先要确认周围状况。回转作业时,对周围障碍物、地形要做到心中有数,安全操作;作业时,要确认履带的前后方向,避免造成倾翻或撞击;尽量不要把终传动面对挖掘方向,否则容易损伤行走马达或软管;作业时,要保证左右履带与地面完全接触,提高整机的动态稳定性。
First of all, we need to confirm the surroundings. Rotary operation, the surrounding obstacles, terrain to be aware of, safe operation; operation, to confirm the track's front and rear direction, to avoid overturning or impact; try not to face the final drive direction of excavation, otherwise easy to damage the walking motor or hose; operation, to ensure full contact between the left and right tracks and the ground, improve the dynamic stability of the machine.
2、有效挖掘方法:
2. Effective mining methods:
当铲斗缸和连杆、斗杆缸和斗杆之间互成90度时,挖掘力最大;铲斗斗齿和地面保持30度角时,挖掘力最佳即切土阻力最小;用斗杆挖掘时,应保证斗杆角度范围在从前面45度角到后面30度之间。同时使用动臂和铲斗,能提高挖掘效率。
When the bucket cylinder and connecting rod, bucket rod cylinder and bucket rod are 90 degrees each other, the excavation force is the greatest; when bucket teeth and ground are kept at 30 degrees angle, the excavation force is the best, that is, the cutting resistance is the smallest; when using bucket rod to excavate, the angle range of bucket rod should be guaranteed between 45 degrees in front and 30 degrees in back. At the same time, the use of boom and bucket can improve the excavation efficiency.
3、挖掘岩石:
3. Excavating rocks:
使用铲斗挖掘岩石会对机器造成较大破坏,应尽避免;必须挖掘时,应根据岩石的裂纹方向来调整机体的位置,使铲斗能够顺利铲入,进行挖掘;把斗齿插入岩石裂缝中,用斗杆和铲斗的挖掘力进行挖掘(应留心斗齿的滑脱);未被碎裂的岩石,应先破碎再使用铲斗挖掘。
The use of buckets to excavate rocks will cause greater damage to the machine, should be avoided; must be excavated, according to the direction of cracks in the rock to adjust the position of the body, so that the bucket can be smoothly shoveled into and excavated; to insert bucket teeth into the rock cracks, excavation with the excavating force of bucket rod and bucket (should pay attention to the slippage of bucket teeth); not fractured rocks, should be broken first and then use bucket excavation.
4、坡面平整作业:
4. Slope leveling operation:
进行平面修整时应将机器平放地面,防止机体摇动,要把握动臂与斗杆的动作协调性,控制两者的速度对于平面修整至关重要。
When plane dressing is carried out, the machine should be laid flat on the ground to prevent the body from shaking. It is very important for plane dressing to control the speed of both arms and bucket rods in coordination with each other.
5、装载作业:
5. Loading operations:
机体应处于水平稳定位置,否则回转卸载难以准确控制,从而延长作业循环时间;机体与卡车要保持适当距离,防止在做180度回转时机体尾部与卡车相碰;尽量进行左回转装上,这样做视野开阔、作业效率高,同时要正确掌握旋转角度,以减少用于回转的时间;卡车位置林比挖掘机低,以缩短动臂提升时间,且视线良好;先装砂土、碎石,再放置大石块,这样可以减少对车箱的撞击。
The body should be in a stable horizontal position, otherwise it is difficult to control the rotary unloading accurately, so as to prolong the operation cycle time; the body and truck should keep an appropriate distance to prevent the tail of the body from colliding with the truck when doing 180 degrees of rotation; the left rotary loading should be carried out as far as possible, so that the vision is wide and the operation efficiency is high, and the rotation angle should be grasped correctly, so as to reduce the time used for the rotary position of the truck. In order to shorten the boom lifting time and have a good sight, the forests are lower than the excavators. Firstly, sand and gravel are loaded, and then large stones are placed, which can reduce the impact on the truck.
6、松软地带或水中作业:
6. Working in soft areas or in water:
在软土地带作业时,应了解土壤松实程度,并注意限制铲斗的挖掘范围,防止滑坡、塌方等事故发生以及车体沉陷较深。
When working in soft soil zone, we should know the degree of soil compactness, and pay attention to limit the excavation scope of buckets to prevent landslides, landslides and other accidents as well as deep car body subsidence.
在水中作业时,应注意车体容许的水深范围(水面应在托链轮中心以下);如果水平面较高,回转支承内部将因水的进入导致润滑不良,发动机风扇叶片受水击打导致折损,电器线路元件由于水的侵入发生短路或断路。
When working in water, attention should be paid to the allowable depth range of the car body (water surface should be below the center of the chain wheel); if the horizontal plane is high, the lubrication of the slewing bearing will be poor due to the entry of water, the engine fan blades will be damaged by water shock, and the electrical circuit components will be short-circuited or broken due to the invasion of water.
7、吊装作业:
7. Lifting operation:
作用液压挖掘机进行吊装操作进,应确认吊装现场周围状况,使用高强度的吊勾和钢丝绳,吊装时要尽量使用专用的吊装装置;作业方式应选择微操作模式,动作要缓慢平衡;吊绳长短适当,过长会使吊物摆动较大而难以精确控制;要正确调整铲斗位置,以防止钢线绳滑脱;施工人员尽量不要靠近吊装物,以防止因操作不当发生危险。
When the hydraulic excavator is used for hoisting operation, it should confirm the surrounding conditions of the hoisting site, use high-strength hoisting hook and wire rope, and use special hoisting device as far as possible when hoisting; the mode of operation should be micro-operation mode, and the action should be slowly balanced; the length of the hoisting rope is appropriate, too long will make the hoisting object sway larger and difficult to accurately control; the position of the shovel should be correctly adjusted to prevent the wire rope from swinging. Slip off; construction personnel try not to close to lifting objects, in order to prevent danger due to improper operation.
8、平稳的操作方法:
8. Steady operation method:
作业时,机器的稳定性不仅能提高工作效率,延长机器寿命,而且能确保操作安全(把机器放在较平坦的地面上);驱动链轮在后侧比在前侧的稳定性好,且能够防止终传动遭受外力撞击;履带在地面上的轴距总是大于轮距,所以朝前工作稳定性好,要尽量避免侧向操作;要保持挖掘点靠近机器,以提高稳定性和挖掘机;假如挖掘点远离机器,造成因重心前移,作业就不稳定;侧向挖掘比正向挖掘稳定性差,如果挖掘点远离机体中心,机器会更加不稳定,因此挖掘点与机体中心应保持合适的距离,以使操作平衡、高效。
When working, the stability of the machine can not only improve the working efficiency and prolong the life of the machine, but also ensure the safety of operation (putting the machine on a flat ground); the stability of the driving sprocket at the back is better than that at the front, and it can prevent the final transmission from being impacted by external forces; the wheelbase of the crawler on the ground is always larger than that of the wheelbase, so the forward working stability is good, and the lateral operation should be avoided as far as possible. To keep the excavation point close to the machine to improve stability and excavator; if the excavation point is far away from the machine, resulting in the center of gravity moving forward, the operation is unstable; the lateral excavation is less stable than the forward excavation, and if the excavation point is far from the center of the machine body, the machine will be more unstable, so the excavation point and the center of the machine should maintain appropriate distance to make the operation balanced and efficient.
挖掘机的折旧年限为10年,但基本上使用5000小时后就会开始出现各种问题,所以在青壮年时期要做好保养之外,在5000小时之后更要注意延长寿命的方法。那么有哪些方法可以延长挖掘机的使用寿命呢?
The depreciation life of excavators is 10 years, but basically after 5000 hours, various problems will arise. Therefore, besides the maintenance in the young and middle-aged period, more attention should be paid to the method of prolonging the life after 5000 hours. So what methods can prolong the service life of excavators?
一:正确使用挖掘机,严格执行安全技术操作规程,对机械设备实行目标成本管理,将操作者的经济效益与挖掘机使用费(如燃油料费、维修费、保养费、材料费、工具费等)挂钩,变挖掘机驾驶员被动日常维护保养设备为主动日常维护保养。
1. Correct use of excavators, strict implementation of safety technical operating rules, target cost management of mechanical equipment, linking the operator's economic benefits with excavator usage fees (such as fuel, maintenance, maintenance, materials, tools, etc.), changing the excavator driver's passive routine maintenance equipment to active routine maintenance.
                                                 加长臂挖掘机
二:减少环境气候给挖掘机造成的无形磨损,即减少环境因素对它使用寿命的影响。由于施工机械大部分是露天作业,作业地点经常变动,所以其性能受到作业场地的温度、环境、气候等因素的影响很大。长期固定作业的机械,一定要有停机房(棚),或者采取上遮盖,下用木料支垫的维护措施,减少日晒雨淋、锈蚀造成的无形磨损。不少施工单位由于忽视了环境因素对使用机械的影响(环境温度过低,还会给机械造成灾难性后果)。未采取相应的保护性或适应性措施,致使机械使用性能降低,使用寿命缩短,甚至酿成事故。
2. Reduce the invisible wear and tear of excavator caused by environmental climate, that is to say, reduce the influence of environmental factors on its service life. Because most of the construction machinery is open-air operation, the work site often changes, so its performance is greatly affected by the temperature, environment, climate and other factors of the work site. Long-term fixed operation of machinery, must have a shutdown room (shed), or take the upper cover, under the use of wooden mattress maintenance measures to reduce the sun, rain, rust caused by invisible wear and tear. Many construction units neglect the impact of environmental factors on the use of machinery (environmental temperature is too low, it will cause disastrous consequences for machinery). Failure to take appropriate protective or adaptive measures results in reduced mechanical performance, shortened service life and even accidents.
三:挖掘机实行定期保养是延长寿命的关键。《交通部筑养路机械保修规程》对装载机的
Third: Regular maintenance of excavators is the key to prolong their life. Loaders in Regulations for Maintenance of Road Construction Machinery of the Ministry of Communications

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